Friday, January 17, 2020
Experiment 12 Calorimetry and Heat of Reactions ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ PERFORMANCE GOALS: 1. To learn how to use of a calorimeter 2. To learn how to collect and manipulate data in the computer 3. To calculate the calorimeter constant 4. To use Hess' Law to find the heat or formation of magnesium oxide CHEMICAL OVERVIEW: Ã¢â¬ ¢Enthalphy: (? H) : when chemical or physical changes occur at a constant pressure. Ã¢â¬ ¢Calorimeter: is an instrument with insulating walls where the reaction happens. Eq. 1: q rxn = -qsurrounding Heat of capacity of the calorimeter: Ã¢â¬Å"CpÃ¢â¬ must be calculated at the beginning of every calorimeter experiment in Joules/ Ã °C Heat Capacity of the Calorimeter: The calorimeter constant is easily found by adding a fixed amount of hot water to a known amount of cold water and the change in temp for each recorded, due to the Law of Energy Conservation the amount of heat r eleased by the hot water should be equal to the amount of heat absorbed by the cold water: Eq. 2 q released( Hot Water) = -q absorbed (Cold Water) If there is a discrepancy between these two values use the following equation:Eq. 3q= m x spht x ? T Where spht is the specific heat of the substance in J/ gÃ °C ?T is the temperature change in Ã °C andm is the mass in grams Mass of Cold Water|51. 20 g| Initial temperature of cold water|20. 3 Ã °C| Mass of hot water|49. 82 g| Initial temp of hot water|98. 2 Ã °C| Final temp of the mixture|58. 3 Ã °C| Eq. 4qHot = mHot x sphtWater x ? THot qHot = (4. 184 J/ Ã °C-g)(49. 82g)(58. 3 Ã °C-98. 2 Ã °C) = -8317 J Eq. 5qCold = mCold x sphtWater x ? TCold qCold = (4. 184 J/ Ã °C-g)(51. 20g)(58. 3 Ã °C-20. 3 Ã °C) = 8142 J 8317-8142 = 175 joules Cp = ( 175 J ) / (58. Ã °C Ã¢â¬â 20. 3 Ã °C) Cp = 4. 6 J/ Ã °C HEAT OF REACTIONS: q released = -q absorbed Eq. 6 q released = Ã¢â¬â (q solution + q calorimeter ) Eq. 7 qSolution = mSolutio n x sphtWater x ? TSolution sphtsolution= 4. 184 J/ g Ã °C Eq. 8q calorimeter= Cp x ? T Eq. 9 q reaction = ? Hreaction Hess's Law Hess's Law states that the enthalpy of a reaction is independent of the steps that it takes to get from reactants to products because enthalpy of reaction is a state function. State Function- depends on initial and final state but not on the path taken ?Temperature ?Volume ?Pressure ?Energy Mg (s) + 1/2 O2 (g) Ã¢â¬â> MgO ( s) PRE-LAB ASSIGNMENT 1. Predict the product, balance the questions and write the net ionic equations for the reactions: a. Mg (s) + HCI (aq) Ã¢â¬â> b. MgO (s) + HC: (aq) Ã¢â¬â> 2. Write the reaction that represents the enthalpy of formation ( ? Hfor ) of water. 3. Use the table of the thermodynamic data in your text book to calculate the ? H for each of the three reactions REMEMBER Eq. 10 ( ? H Ã °rxn = ? ( n? H Ã °for )prod Ã¢â¬â ? ( n? H Ã °for )react 1) 2) 3) 4. Use Hess's Law combining the three molecular equations to calculate the ?Hrxn for the reaction of the formation of MgO. PROCEDURE A. CALIBRATION OF THERMISTOR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. B. DETERMINATION OF THE HEAT CAPACITY OF THE CALORIMETER 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. C. REACTION OF MgO AND HCI 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. D. REACTION OF Mg AND HCI 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. E. DATA AND CALCULATIONS A. Calorimeter Constant Mass of Styrofoam cup with lid + spin bar (g)|| Mass of cup with lid + spin bar + 50mL of room temp. water (g)|| Initial Temp of Room Temp. Water ( Ã °C )|| Initial Temp of Hot Water( Ã °C )|| Total mass at the end (g)||Calculated Heat released by Hot Water (J) (Eq. 4)|| Calculated Heat absorbed by R. T Water (J) Eq. 5)|| Calculated Heat absorbed by Calorimeter (J)|| Calculated Heat Capacity of the Calorimeter, Cp (J/Ã °C) (Eq. 8) || B. Heat of Reaction of MgO Mass of weighing boat (g)|| Mass of weighing boat + Magnesium oxide (g)|| Mass of Magnesium oxide (g)|| Mass of Styrofoam cup with lid + spin bar (g)|| Mass or Styrof oam cup with lid, spin bar (g) + HCI|| Calculated Mass of HCI (g)|| Total Mass of solution at the end|| Calculated Mass of MgO (g) (using total mass of solution)||Initial Temperature of Solution (Ã °C) (before MgO was added)|| Final. Temp of solution (Ã °C) (after MgO was added)|| Calculated Heat absorbed by solution (J) (Eq. 7)|| Calculated Heat absorbed by calorimeter (J) (Eq. 8)|| Calculated Total heat absorbed|| Calculated Total heat released by the solution (Eq. 6)|| Calculated Moles of MgO|| Calculated Moles of HCI|| Heat released per Mole of MgO|| Molar Heat Reaction (kJ/mol)|| C. Reaction of Mg with HCI Mass of weighing boat (g)|| Mass of weighing boat + Magnesium (g)|| Mass of Magnesium (g)|| Mass of Styrofoam cup with lid + spin bar (g)||Mass or Styrofoam cup with lid, spin bar (g) + HCI|| Calculated Mass of HCI (g)|| Total Mass of solution at the end|| Calculated Mass of Mg (g) (using the final mass of solution)|| Initial Temperature of Solution (Ã °C) (before Mg was a dded)|| Final. Temp of solution (Ã °C) (after Mg was added)|| Calculated Heat absorbed by solution (J) (Eq. 7)|| Calculated Heat absorbed by calorimeter (J) (Eq. 8)|| Calculated Total heat absorbed|| Calculated Total heat released by the solution (Eq. 6)|| Calculated Moles of Mg|| Calculated Moles of HCI|| Heat released per Mole of Mg||
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Ethical Relativism is an unsound and unreliable ethical philosophy Mohammed Jweihan Ethics for a Global Economy Ethical Relativism is an unsound and unreliable ethical philosophy Cultural and ethical relativisms are widely used theories that explain differences among cultures and their ethics and morals. Morality deals with individual character and the moral rules that are meant to govern and limit oneÃ¢â¬â¢s character. On the other hand Ethics is somewhat interchangeable with morals, but it actually defines the principles of right conduct, thus to some extent, enlarging its scope to a societal or communal level. Ideally, ethics play a vital role in determining the dos and donÃ¢â¬â¢ts when dealing with the society. This essay will discuss what ethical realism is, analyzing why ethical relativism is unsound and unreliable in relation to the relevant evidence and literature, providing valid reason to ascertain why this is the case. Ethical realism This is a doctrine that bases its arguments in the fact that there are no universal absolute truths in ethics and that what is morally right or wrong varies from person to person or from society to society. Ethical relativism is a similar concept, based specifically on the ethics of a culture and how they are related to those of other cultures (Kluckhohn, 2011). Herodotus, the Greek historian advanced this view when he observed that different societies have different customs and that each person thinks that his customs are
Tuesday, December 31, 2019
One of the first prison systems was called the Pennsylvania System. The ideology of this system was used in the Eastern State Penitentiary in the early 1800s. This system had very definite ideas on how a prison should be organized and managed. The operation of this prison was based on the following 5 general principles (Clear, Cole, Reisig, 2006): 1. Do not treat prisoners harshly, but instruct them that hard and selective forms of suffering could change their lives. 2. Solitary confinement will prevent further corruption. 3. Offenders should reflect on their transgressions and repent. 4. Solitary confinement is considered punishment. 5. Solitary confinement is economical. The Quakers are the ones that actually formed theseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦During this time rehabilitation was the theory and punishment was no longer the idea. These punishments or correctional aspects have done a great deal to the effects upon the prisoners. For the punishment of solitary confinement, this can go both ways. In one way if you put an individual in confinement they have time to think about the crime that they have committed and can give a good hard look at their life. Then on the other hand if you put someone in confinement where there is no noise, no light, and nothing to do this person can go mentally insane. When it began it was for the hardest criminals it has changed now a days to you get confinement for doing another crime in prison, being a disturbance, and/or refusing to do a request for the guards such as take a sheet off you window so they are able to see in on what you are doing, that way they can tell if you are okay or trying to do something illegal in prison. This would include drugs, wine, shanks, etc. also they are able to tell your mental state, if you are in imminent danger from yourself. The aspect on working in prison has changed but only for the safety of the prisoners and guards. If helped some of the prisoners have something to do during the day, a way for them to be productive. Then on the other hand in the beginning they were forced to work no matter if they liked it or not, there were even stories of them being sold as slaves. Cell blocks in the beginning were huge; they had a restroom,Show MoreRelatedCommunity Justice And Criminal Justice980 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommunity justice is a broad term that includes many aspects of involving the community. The main goal is to enhance the lives within the community through the creation of problem solving strategies and strengthening the standards within the community by restoring victimÃ¢â¬â¢s quality of life, and reintegrating offenders of crimes. Although community justice can be traced back hundreds of years. The model is still considered a nontraditional approach in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s criminal justice sector. Due to its broadRead MoreJustice And The Criminal Justice System Essay1918 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesWhen it comes to the criminal justice system, there is often a gray area between what is considered fair and what is just, with these concepts many times having a connection. Furthermore, justice and fairness are subjective and many times individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ concept of what is fair or just differ. Throughout a recent court case involving a Stanford University swimmer being charged with rape, that issue became well evident. This case involved a Stanford student, Brock Turner, being charged with sexuallyRead MoreThe On The Criminal Justice System984 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGarland (2001), view on Ã¢â¬Å"the criminal justice system in America was created to keep communities safe, to respect and restore victims, and to return offenders who leave prison to be self-sufficient and law-abiding. 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First a case starts with law enforcement officials, who investigate crime and gather evidence to identify and use against the assumed suspect. The case then proceeds to the court system, which evaluates the evidence to decide if the defendant is guilty or innocent. If the defendantRead MoreThe Criminal Justice System1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Criminal Justice System consists of three main components; police, corrections, and the courts, which play a role in maintaining a proper and functional system. These three core functions have their own limitations and use of discretion. At times discrimination occurs within each individual function. Policing is law enforcement, which obtains the backbone and gatekeepers to The Criminal Justice System. This is where discretion takes place the most. Indeed, discrimination can start with policing
Monday, December 23, 2019
Sherman Alexie: What it means to be an Indian in America Ã¢â¬Å"Dr. Mather, if the Ghost Dance worked, there would be no exceptions. All you white people would disappear. All of you. If those dead Indians came back to life, they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t crawl into a sweathouse with you. They wouldnÃ¢â¬Ët smoke the pipe with you. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢d kill you. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢d gut you and eat your heart.Ã¢â¬ -Marie, Indian Killer, 314 The identity of the modern Native American is not found in simple language or description. Neither does a badge or collection of eagle feathers determine Native American identity. As Alexie demonstrates through the character of Dr. Mather and Wilson, pony-tails and store bought drums are mere materialistic symbols and stereotypes: they have no real valueÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Yet the hatred that Marie embraces is intrinsic to the reality sheÃ¢â¬â¢s come to understand, which, Alexie reminds us, is formed in terms of opposition and argument. She is politically antagonistic because she feels she has to be, and is extremely disrespectful to any white person she might not like upon closer contact. Yet Marie is intensely passionate about education, about her culture, and about the Indian struggle. As Alexie strives to demonstrate throughout Indian Killer, this hatred, while not without cause or inevitability, is the root of racial wars and senseless violence. In human terms of hate and love, of power and submission, modern day Seattle teems with deeply set racial problems and equally damaging ignorance. Alexie intends that Native American identity be understood in a legacy of relocation and family destruction: he begins his tale centered on the ironically named John Smith and JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s removal from his mother and his culture. John becomes embedded in this hate and violence, yet is never identified as a killer or a murder: in fact, none of the cast is identified as the murderer or the culprit of kidnappings. The entire city of Seattle becomes a leaping bed of violence and destruction through the lives of AlexieÃ¢â¬â¢s characters: the characterization of his rich cast promotes racial commonalities in violence and rhetoric, as well as behavior. Yet while Alexie acknowledges that modern Native American identity isShow MoreRelatedEng 2001040 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesinfluences Poverty is one of the main problem in the world, either developed country or developing country. Poverty both influence developed country, America and developing country, Mexico. In The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-time Indian and The DevilÃ¢â¬â¢s Highway, they both facing the poverty issue. Sherman Alexie is telling us about the Indian American living in a hard life and Luis Alberto Urrea is telling us about the poor Mexican people migrating to United States for gaining wealth. Both ofRead MoreEssay Sherman Alexie1140 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSherman Alexie The odds were against Sherman Alexie on that day in October 1966. 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Whether it is in Coyote SpringÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to succeed, Robert JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s painstaking attempt to leave his guitar over the years, alcoholismRead MoreCrow Testament Analysis1627 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAs seen throughout Sherman AlexieÃ¢â¬â¢s work, despair and hardship caused by European influences among Native peoples is a common issue that seems to be a reoccurring element in his work. Through the use of figurative language, Alexie is able to transcribe those issue s onto paper by using metaphors and illusions to describe emotions conveyed by the Native peoples. Sherman Alexie is a Native American writer that is influenced by his experiences while growing up on the Spokane Indian Reservation in theRead MoreThe Lone Ranger And Tonto Fistfight Essay1521 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven is a book written by; Sherman Alexie. In this book, Alexie writes about a group of Native Americans who live on the Spokane Indian Reservation. As this novel may be fiction, some of the stories that are portrayed in the text have some very real meaning the them. These Native Americans endure lots of heartache and tragedy in this book as they are faced with problems like alcoholism, car accidents, loss of loved one and houses burning. In the face of adversityRead MoreSummary Of Democracy Of America By Alexis De Tocqueville1314 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages InÃ¢â¬ Democracy of AmericaÃ¢â¬ chapter XVII written by Alexis de Tocqueville, he discusses the plight of indians(natives). Tocqueville talks about how he believed the fate of Native Americans would be to completely deprived of liberty. In addition to what he believed, Tocqueville says, Ã¢â¬Å"The success of the Cherokees proves that the Indians are capable of civilization, but it does not prove that they will succeed in itÃ¢â¬ (page 401).Whenever the Indians were able to submit to civilization they were neverRead MoreThe Process Of Learning How I Read And Write848 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswhich Alexie, Malcom X, and Douglass achieved their competence in literacy. The unconventional method through which they learned the art of reading and writing was a way more extreme and complex path from the one that anyone else at their age would have had. The three authors mentioned above, all comes from disadvantaged backgrounds that prevented them to get their instruction and found shelter in books stories when they were alone. They all were all men who truly loved to read. Sherman Alexie andRead MoreClose Reading of a Poem Essay1280 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPoem ON THE AMTRAK FROM BOSTON TO NEW YORK CITY: BY SHERMAN ALEXIE On the Amtrak from Boston to New York City is an emotionally provocative poem by the Native American Indian writer, Sherman Alexie. It describes a train journey from Boston to New York City in which an elderly white woman excitedly points out historical sites to her fellow passenger, a younger Native American Indian. The poem demonstrates how narrow minded the American Indian finds the white American culture; for, it does not goRead MoreOmniscient Point of View in Ã¢â¬Å"This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona2086 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesOmniscient Point of view in Ã¢â¬Å"This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, ArizonaÃ¢â¬ The story Ã¢â¬Å"This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, ArizonaÃ¢â¬ by Sherman Alexie is a fictional narrative that reflects his experiences during his past and present life. The author allows the audience to become the social media that critiques his life when he evokes important episodes of his life through Victor and Thomas Builds-the-Fire liveliness. In this process, Sherman Alexis uses his omniscient point of view to tellRead MoreAnalysis Of Sherman Alexies Novel The Lone Ranger And Tonto Fistfight In Heaven2012 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesEssay 1 In Sherman AlexieÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven shows the struggles of daily Native American life, which is shown through the point of view of male character. All though out the book the following three questions appear: Ã¢â¬ËWhat does it mean to live as an Indian in this time? What does it mean to be an Indian man? and What does it mean to live on an Indian reservation?Ã¢â¬â¢ Alexie uses literary devices such as point of view, imagery, characterization to make his point that
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Popular events like the football world cup and other international sporting occasions are essential in easing international tensions and releasing patriotic emotions in a safe way. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? In present days,more and more countries are putting big sporting events into national agenda due to a sporting explosion and their increasingly attentions towards multinational sports occupations. Meantime,issues are highly debated on whether such international sporting activities can ease the intensive atmospheres between competitive countries or not. We will write a custom essay sample on My View on Sporting Event or any similar topic only for you Order Now Personally, I really appreciate the former idea for several reasons. In general,popular sporting events contribute to harmonious relationships between the participated nations. To start with,communications between nations during the games enable them to be closer to others. Participation in the events promotes the development of friendshios and recongnition,which are acquired by sharing the exciting moments and cooperating with each other. Moreover,every joining country is likely to concentrate on the game during the competiton,which ,as a result,tend to pay less attention to deal with his enemies in the fields of politics or economy. It is true that countries can afford no distraction to pose threats to the security of other countries during the game. Admittedly,sporting events may not function well to shoulder the responsibility for eliminating the contradiction between countries. The reason for this is that such events can make competitions even more intensive than before,provided that one country win another,which is coincidently its enemy. Obviously,the situation tends to be counterproductive,let alone the expectation of an improvement. Even so,it is unusual that such sort of thing happens frequently,as the game launched internationly is seen as a profile of promoting team spirit and paticipation. In summary,I would concede that the sporting events cause worse problems in some cases. Despite that,they play pivotal roles in cooling strained emotions safely. Overall,I am convinced that more and more countries should join in the events. How to cite My View on Sporting Event, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss About The Implementation Of Theory Of Human Caring? Answer: Introduction The true prevalence of compassion fatigue (CF) among mental health nurses remains open for discussion. Working with mental health patients is full of stressful situations and a growing literature is suggesting burnout among mental health nurses. CF is defined as a state of psychological or physical stress condition among nurses or caregivers that occurs due to consequences of snowballing and ongoing process in demanding relationship with mental health patients (Mendes 2014). This condition is also defined as helper syndrome resulting from disappointing situations that give rise to loss of compassion and moral distress. CF is defined to result from deep involvement with mentally ill patients leading to suffering during caring for them (van Mol et al. 2015). Complex demands made from mental health nurses while caring for dementia patients place extraordinary stress marketing them feel overburdened in their profession. This has serious implications as inability to deliver proper care fo r patients leading to compassion and increased number of nurse turnover (Kelly, Runge and Spencer 2015). Therefore, the above discussion highlights that CF is reaching an alarming stage and require implementation of strategies for prevention, identification and mitigation of CF among mental health nurses. Taking this into consideration, the following paper will discuss and contribute to the understanding of CF among mental health nurses and ways to prevent it. Moreover, the paper will also discuss best evidence based literature available on the chosen topic. The rationale for choosing this topic is that nurses are the largest and single member of healthcare providers who are at the frontlines of care delivery. In addition, mental health nurses provide care for serious mentally ill patients having complex needs. Therefore, to reduce burnout and ensure quality of care in mental health nursing, there is urgent need for CF mitigation to provide best quality of received care. Mental health nurses forms a crucial part of psychiatric workforce-mental health speciality and their role in caring for dementia patients is exhausting both mentally and physically. Caring for dementia patients is extremely stressful as patients lack the ability to communicate and this result in difficulty to manage patients that give rise to work-related stress among mental health nurses. CF not only impact mental health nurses in psychiatric speciality due to caring for dementia patients, but also due to pain experiences of patients suffering from dementia (Franza, Del Buono and Pellegrino 2015). Figley explained that CF is experienced by individuals who see others in pain and distress (Sheppard 2015). Similarly, when mental health nurses view their patients suffering from dementia experiencing pain, they get traumatized via their efforts to show empathy and compassion. This is the reason CF is designated as secondary traumatic stress that results from caring for dementia patients suffering from emotional and physical stress or pain (Hinderer et al. 2014). Another triggering factor for CF among nurses is work environment (Hunsaker et al. 2015). Due to shortage of mental health nurses, workload and poor support make them helpless and they are unable to escape situation giving rise to workplace-related stress and CF. Intense involvement of mental health nurses with dementia patients gives rise to CF or psychological stress and impairment of provision of care given to them leading to poor care delivery and management. As suggested in literature, one of the main effects of dementia is losing control and behavioural changes that are sudden and challenging for mental health nurses to manage (Mitchell et al. 2014). Moreover, there are challenges to hydration, adequate nutrition, sleep patterns and difficulties with motivation demanding high amount of care from mental health nurses leave them devastated and stressed being a significant factor hampering patient safety. To adhere to these demands of dementia care, mental health nurses face state of exhaustion with losing coping ability. Various triggering factors are witnessed in CF that includes physical, work-related and emotional symptoms. There is less empathy towards them and avoidance of working with dementia patients, restlessness, mood swings, irritability, anxiety, poor judgment, depression and loss of objectivity (Sheppard 2015). These consequences give rise to CF including hyper-vigilance, sleep disturbance, anxiety, fear, physical sensations like feeling burdened, difficulty in concentrating, overwhelmed with feelings of hopelessness and isolation resulting in disengagement and disconnectedness (Hegney et al. 2014). These conditions not only affect nurses in terms of physical or emotional health, but also their job satisfaction and workplace environment decreasing organizational productivity and increasing nursing turnover. Various theoretical perspectives are related to CF. Watson theory of human caring states that empathy and communication advocates for empathetic relationship-based nursing that is defined to understand feelings and situations from patients perspective and communicating accordingly to gain understanding of patients condition (Yeter Durgun Ozan 2015). Another perceptive put forward by Koloroutis is that healthy relationship with patients can only be advocated, if nurses relationship with self is established (Fitzpatrick 2014). However, due to CF there are imbalances in personal relationship and work-life that becomes a significant factor in CP. Physical and emotional factors triggering CF is hampering their relationship with self and in optimizing their health resulting in failure to provide compassionate care and being a productive member of mental health workforce (Drury et al. 2014). The emotional investment that mental health nurses invest is overextended that challenge their abili ty to manage demands of being empathetic and compassionate towards patients with dementia (Sorenson et al. 2016). This is a serious issue impacting adversely and directly on the nurses psychology, psychical and emotional health. Although, professional nursing thrives to provide care and develop empathetic relationship with patients, this relationship is not possible that is contributing to CF requiring conscious steps to lessen or avoid this condition. Therefore, there is an urgency to develop understanding and create awareness among the healthcare system to mitigate CF among nurses and reduce burnout and turnover. The primary role of nurses is to provide high quality of care and work towards meeting the physical and emotional needs of patients. This role becomes immensely rewarding and challenging for nurses especially in mental health speciality while caring for dementia patients. This is explained by Compassion Stress/Fatigue Model that this highly specialized type of work is greatly demanding and challenging for them creating increased and continuous stressful workplace conditions for them. Moreover, it also creates increasingly heavy workload and cynicism due to dwindling resources, lack of support from co-workers and management team resulting in low job satisfaction and eventually CF (Melvin 2015). Vast pool of literature is present to describe CF as cost of caring for patients suffering from physical and emotional pain. A report published by Hospital Healthcare Bulletin, Australia states that CF is recognized since 1970s is defined as combination of emotional, physical and spiritual depletion that is associated while caring for people in physical distress and emotional stress. The prevalence in Australia has increased from 25% to 70% among mental health professionals while caring for patients with mental health problems repeatedly experiencing trauma and pain (Hospital Health Bulletin 2018). According to Ledoux (2015) CF is characterized by deep emotional or physical exhaustion being a pronounced change in order to help patients and feel empathetic towards them. According to Ray et al. (2013) frontline mental healthcare professionals (FMHPs) including nursing perform variety of roles in providing high quality of care to suffering from psychological and physical complaints like dementia that give rise to CF. The cross-sectional and non-experimental study conducted was aimed at determining CF among mental health professionals including nurses. Various factors contribute to CF like work life dissatisfaction, lack of support and trauma experienced while caring for mentally ill patients. High levels of compassion dissatisfaction and fatigue increase the chances of workplace stress among mental health nurses giving rise to high levels of nursing burnout and turnover. According to Morse et al. (2012) due to increasing fatigue among mental health professionals, burnout is increasingly viewed rising as a major concern in the mental nursing speciality. As mentioned in literature, patients suffering from dementia are unable to communicate well and perform self-care activities and as a result, they are unable to raise their concerns and needs to nurses. They work beyond their limits, however resulting in reduced sense of personal accomplishment or self-efficacy to perform their work. There is deceased overall job dissatisfaction and negative self-evaluation leading to nursing burnout in mental healthcare. Although, burnout is related to mental health conditions like depression and anxiety, research support the fact that it is construct that greatly occur from stress reaction and job dissatisfaction. Secondary traumatisation or compassion fatigue is related to burnout where nurses are unable care for the patients. According to Whitebird et al. (2013) nurses working in hospice care (acute and emergency care) impart challenging work to the nurses overwhelmed stress and heavy workload. This lead to CF, depression and anxiety among nurses also affecting their mental health and face issues in coping up. After surveying 547 workers in hospice care in Minnesota, it was found that there were high levels of stress among the nurses and medical staffs reporting moderate to severe anxiety, depression and CF leading to burnout. They reported that to manage their stress, they seek physical support and physical activity suggesting opportunities while connecting with co-workers in order to decrease nurse burnout. This risk their mental health conditions increasing risk for burnout contributing to nurses leaving hospice care. Zeidner et al. (2013) in their paper stated that both professional and personal factors contribute to CF among healthcare professionals. About 89 mental healths and 93 medical healthcare professionals participated in the research for measuring CF. The major findings of the study suggested that emotional intelligence like motivation, social and communications skills, self-confidence, self-awareness, empathy and self-regulation are inversely proportional to CF. While working with mentally ill patients, nurses are unable to communicate well and show compassion and empathy towards them that results in de-motivation and unwillingness to work. This over-demanding need of high degree of care greatly affects nurses leading to anxiety, CF and in severe cases, leads to depression. Furthermore, nurses inability to cope with problem mediate CF rising from emotional intelligence affect their quality of life and forms basis for early identification of CF to decrease nursing burnout and turnover. According to Coetzee and Klopper (2010) the phenomenon where nurses lose their nurturing power towards their patients in their nursing practice results in CF acting as risk factor. As there is scarce literature present in terms of CF in nursing practice, there is still increase in knowledge where workplace stress and inability to perform care towards patients can give rise to CF. Peer support network and seeking managerial assistance can help to reduce the detrimental effects of CF among mental health nursing workforce. Programs that help nurses and other healthcare professionals to seek skill-education and free counselling along with services offered to nurses can seek them opportunity to cope and prevent CF enhancing their quality of life and professional development. From the above literature, it is evident that prolonged and frequent exposure of mental health nurses in mental ward settings providing care for mentally ill patients exposes them to fatigue and depression. While understanding the complex needs of mental ill patients and inability to provide care triggers CF among them leading to reduction in motivation, resilience and ability to work in their nursing speciality. In order to mitigate CF arising due to inability to care for patients with dementia, it is important to understand CF and most importantly, work towards fulfilling the health literacy needs for older adult dementia patients. Health literacy and cognition is reduced in dementia patients due to reduced working memory processing and inability to remember and process new information resulting in loss of self control and changes in behavioural patterns. This is the reason that makes them forget specific details being unaware of time and situation due to poor information comprehension. Therefore, health literacy needs of dementia patients and communicating effectively with them can help to reduce stress due to lack of care resulting in CF (McCaffery et al. 2013). Various approaches are available that can help nurses to care for dementia patients and recognize the early signs of fatigue and stress. As dementia patients have memory problems, it is quite mandatory to repeat the essential information to them so that there is proper processing of information and meaning. It is not necessary that all dementia patients have severe symptoms, moderate symptoms can also occur, so while communicating, nurses should focus on important personal details that can help to minimize their distractions. Apart from verbal communication, non-verbal communication is also important where nurses should execute gestures to show that one is truthful and listening to them. Non-verbal communication comprises of four different cues playing various roles; repetition as it helps to convey message effectively, substitution as eye contact and accurate body posture can help to make patients understand conveyed message, complementing that can help to make the patient feel conc erned and accenting or highlighting the important message (De Vries 2013). Communicating through directions is important for dementia patients emphasizing on desired actions help to boost their working memory, reducing confusion and in taking appropriate action when required. Empathetic relationship is important as it helps to build rapport and trustworthy relationship with patients. It is also important to use plain language and simple words to make them understand the conveyed message. In this way, it is quite beneficial for mental health nurses to focus on their actions that can be helpful to make patients feel valued and respected reducing aggression in them. Aggression comes with mental illness and inability to perform self-care activities and so nurses need to consider the early signs of fatigue and stress (McEvoy and Plant 2014). Similarly, to mitigate CF among nurses and enhance their literacy needs, it is important for them to get engaged in self care strategies. The elements of self-care involve adequate sleep, well-balanced nutritious diet, mindfulness including exercise and learning to stay optimistic can help to prevent CF (Dereen Houck 2014). Stress relief strategies like running, walking, meditation, yoga and meditation can help nurses to stay motivated and have balanced workplace and personal life. Nurses can also accomplish to meet the personal and professional demands by taking an active part in relaxation exercises like journaling and deep breathing. These activities can greatly allow nurses to keep their feelings of stress and fatigue aside and be focus and committed towards providing care (Mosadeghrad 2013). From the above discussion, it can be concluded that CF is reaching an alarming stage increasing nursing burnout and turnover. Nurses working in mental health specialty areas are prone to develop CF due to inability to perform care with compassion and empathy. The stress and polarity that is experienced by nurses conflict with their caring values holding high potential for distanced and compromised care. They suffer from poor judgment, feeling of hopelessness, anxiety, unwillingness to work, depression, anxiety and stress affecting quality of care delivered and hampering patient safety. The above discussion also highlights that challenges faced by nurses in mental health settings across globe demand urgent need for research and further development of effective strategies for addressing CF and understanding of factors contributing to it. Self-care strategies employed by nurses and addressing health literacy needs of dementia patients can help to develop caring environment and support t hem. Apart from this, CF also needs attention from management regarding evolving nursing expectations that can help to address their stress and increase attention focusing on nurses personal and professional development in holistic care in the future years. References Coetzee, S.K. and Klopper, H.C., 2010. Compassion fatigue within nursing practice: A concept analysis.Nursing health sciences,12(2), pp.235-243. De Vries, K., 2013. Communicating with older people with dementia.Nursing older people,25(4). Dereen Houck, R.N., 2014. Helping nurses cope with grief and compassion fatigue: an educational intervention.Clinical journal of oncology nursing,18(4), p.454. Drury, V., Craigie, M., Francis, K., Aoun, S. and Hegney, D.G., 2014. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, anxiety, depression and stress in registered nurses in Australia: Phase 2 results.Journal of Nursing Management,22(4), pp.519-531. Fitzpatrick, J.J., 2014. Relationship based care and the psychiatric mental health nurse.Archives of psychiatric nursing,28(4), p.223. Franza, F., Del Buono, G. and Pellegrino, F., 2015. Psychiatric caregiver stress: clinical implications of compassion fatigue.Psychiatr Danub,27(Suppl 1), pp.S321-7. Hegney, D.G., Craigie, M., Hemsworth, D., Osseiran?Moisson, R., Aoun, S., Francis, K. and Drury, V., 2014. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, anxiety, depression and stress in registered nurses in Australia: study 1 results.Journal of Nursing Management,22(4), pp.506-518. Hinderer, K.A., VonRueden, K.T., Friedmann, E., McQuillan, K.A., Gilmore, R., Kramer, B. and Murray, M., 2014. Burnout, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and secondary traumatic stress in trauma nurses.Journal of Trauma Nursing,21(4), pp.160-169. hospitalhealth.com.au 2018.Compassion Fatigue: The Cost Of Caring. [online] Available at: https://www.hospitalhealth.com.au/content/aged-allied-health/article/compassion-fatigue-the-cost-of-caring-1376472314#axzz55vlsdsdo [Accessed 2 Feb. 2018]. Hunsaker, S., Chen, H.C., Maughan, D. and Heaston, S., 2015. Factors that influence the development of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in emergency department nurses.Journal of Nursing Scholarship,47(2), pp.186-194. Kelly, L., Runge, J. and Spencer, C., 2015. Predictors of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction in acute care nurses.Journal of Nursing Scholarship,47(6), pp.522-528. Ledoux, K., 2015. Understanding compassion fatigue: understanding compassion.Journal of advanced nursing,71(9), pp.2041-2050. McCaffery, K.J., Holmes-Rovner, M., Smith, S.K., Rovner, D., Nutbeam, D., Clayman, M.L., Kelly-Blake, K., Wolf, M.S. and Sheridan, S.L., 2013. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids.BMC medical informatics and decision making,13(2), p.S10. McEvoy, P. and Plant, R., 2014. Dementia care: using empathic curiosity to establish the common ground that is necessary for meaningful communication.Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing,21(6), pp.477-482. Melvin, C.S., 2015. Historical review in understanding burnout, professional compassion fatigue, and secondary traumatic stress disorder from a hospice and palliative nursing perspective.Journal of Hospice Palliative Nursing,17(1), pp.66-72. Mendes, A., 2014. Recognising and combating compassion fatigue in nursing.British Journal of Nursing,23(21), pp.1146-1146. Mitchell, A.J., Beaumont, H., Ferguson, D., Yadegarfar, M. and Stubbs, B., 2014. Risk of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older people with subjective memory complaints: meta?analysis.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica,130(6), pp.439-451. Morse, G., Salyers, M.P., Rollins, A.L., Monroe-DeVita, M. and Pfahler, C., 2012. Burnout in mental health services: A review of the problem and its remediation.Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research,39(5), pp.341-352. Mosadeghrad, A.M., 2013. Occupational stress and turnover intention: implications for nursing management.International journal of health policy and management,1(2), p.169. Ray, S.L., Wong, C., White, D. and Heaslip, K., 2013. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, work life conditions, and burnout among frontline mental health care professionals.Traumatology,19(4), pp.255-267. Sheppard, K., 2015. Compassion fatigue among registered nurses: Connecting theory and research.Applied Nursing Research,28(1), pp.57-59. Sorenson, C., Bolick, B., Wright, K. and Hamilton, R., 2016. Understanding compassion fatigue in healthcare providers: A review of current literature.Journal of Nursing Scholarship,48(5), pp.456-465. van Mol, M.M., Kompanje, E.J., Benoit, D.D., Bakker, J. and Nijkamp, M.D., 2015. The prevalence of compassion fatigue and burnout among healthcare professionals in intensive care units: a systematic review.PloS one,10(8), p.e0136955. Whitebird, R.R., Asche, S.E., Thompson, G.L., Rossom, R. and Heinrich, R., 2013. Stress, burnout, compassion fatigue, and mental health in hospice workers in Minnesota.Journal of palliative medicine,16(12), pp.1534-1539. Yeter Durgun Ozan PhD, B.S.N., 2015. Implementation of Watson's theory of human caring: A case study.International Journal of Caring Sciences,8(1), p.25. Zeidner, M., Hadar, D., Matthews, G. and Roberts, R.D., 2013. Personal factors related to compassion fatigue in health professionals.Anxiety, Stress Coping,26(6), pp.595-609.
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Table of Contents Background of the Project Research Questions Importance of the Project Academic Literatures How to Answer Research Questions Project Plan List of References Background of the Project The emerging technologies have turned the world into a global village, and many firms are struggling to find ways of expanding their global operations. International marketing strategies have become integral parts of strategic management as firms try to understand the nature of the environment in the international markets. The luxury industry is one of the oldest industries in the world.Advertising We will write a custom dissertation sample on Keys to Success in Cross-Border Marketing specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many companies offering luxurious products have been struggling to expand their operations to the international markets as a way of expanding their market share. Donia Allegue is one of the emerging luxury products t hat have been rapidly expanding over the recent past. This is one of the first Parisian turban designers that target high-end consumers in Europe. Started in February 2012, this fashion designer has experienced massive success in the recent past in France. However, the management must understand that the international market has some characteristics that are different from the home market in France. According to Ricca and Robins (2012, p. 67), Ã¢â¬Å"Cultural differences affect the nature and pattern of status-directed consumption.Ã¢â¬ Sometimes a product that is valuable to one group may be abhorred because of the cultural backgrounds. This is specifically so when it comes to the apparel industry. When planning to move to the international market, the marketing unit of Donia Allegue must realize that the international market may require different approaches in order to ensure that the operations of the firm are in line with the cultural needs of the local customers. Research Que stions When conducting a research project, it is always important to set specific research questions that would define the path to be taken when collecting data. Research questions always offer a guideline of the type of data to be collected. This helps in avoiding time wastage by collecting irrelevant information. The following are some of the research questions that will guide the process of collecting data. What is the impact of cultural and religious factors in defining the consumption of luxurious products? Is it necessary for a firm like Donia Allegue to modify its products based on the cultural and religious factors? When is it necessary for a firm in the luxurious industry to consider that it has the capacity to enter a market that has different cultural practices from that of the home country? The above three questions will form the basis of this project. Responding to the above questions will help determine the impact of cultural and religious practices on the luxurious industry. It will define when it is necessary for a firm to make an entry into a foreign market. Importance of the Project According to Wiedmann (2013, p. 112), there has been a consistent rise in the number of people into the upper and middle class in various countries across the world. In the United States and Europe, the number of people falling in the upper class has been on the rise. On the other hand, China, Brazil, India, and Africa have had a consistent rise in the number of people falling in the middle class.Advertising Looking for dissertation on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that the target market for luxurious products is rapidly on the rise. There are more people who can afford expensive products in the world market today, than it was in the past. Firms offering luxurious products have, therefore, been under pressure to expand their market operations beyond the national borders as a way of tapping into the expanding market. This research seeks to identify the best approach that these firms can use in order to expand their market share. The researcher appreciates the fact that cultural and religious factors may affect the internalization process of luxury companies. This research is very important because it sheds light on the approach that a firm should take when moving to the international markets. It explains the cultural trends in the market, and how firms such as Donia Allegue should define their products in a way that would enable them operate in the international market. The project seeks to inform these firms that what may be appealing to the French consumers may not be very successful in the market in Saudi Arabia (Okonkwo 2010, p. 76). This is so because of the difference in the cultural and religious practices in the two countries. From this research, these firms operating in luxurious products will be in a better position to formulate strategies t hat can enable them to operate in markets with varying socio-cultural dimensions. Academic Literatures Research is a continuous process that involves gathering new information in order to expand the existing knowledge in a given field. According to Samli (2013, p. 40), it is wrong for one to claim that he or she is conducting research from a scratch. There are always some existing literatures that are related to the topic in one way or the other. A research can on only be important if it brings new knowledge on a given topic. Duplication of the existing knowledge in a new piece of research may not be of any use. It is, therefore, important for the researcher to appreciate the body of the existing literatures in order to identify what other scholars have found out from their research. With this information, the researcher will need to identify the research gaps in the existing literatures. The researcher will determine the areas that other scholars ignored, areas that they recommende d further research, or those that have a contradiction despite being widely published. This way, the new research will be exploring new information in order to expand the knowledge that already exists in the literatures.Advertising We will write a custom dissertation sample on Keys to Success in Cross-Border Marketing specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many scholars have conducted massive research on the impact of cultural and religious practices on the international trade. According to Belk (2010, p. 61), many firms have failed in their internationalization processes because of misunderstanding the cultural practices of a new market. This scholar gives an example of VictoriaÃ¢â¬â¢s Secret that specializes on the lingerie. This firm had experienced massive success in Europe and American markets. It saw a big opportunity in the Middle East Market and made the decision to make its first entry in the region by establishing a store i n Bahrain. However, the decision to use models who were only wearing the lingerie was a disastrous move in a society that holds strict principles about the dress code of women. The product was met by an immediate rejection as it was considered a direct attack on the cultural and religious practices of the locals. The scholar says that the firm was almost forced out of the Kuwaiti market. The management had to restructure itself, eliminate the brands that had earned negative publicity and replace them with new products. The firm had to reinvent its brand in this market in order to manage the hostility in the market. This is an ordeal that a firm such as Donia Allengue should not be subjected to in its internationalization process. The impact of socio-cultural factors on the purchasing pattern of luxurious products is an area that scholars have given massive focus in the recent past. However, there are some contradictions on the existing literatures. While some scholars argue that som e luxurious products are beyond the influence of culture and religion, other scholars hold that every cultural practices is a strong force that cannot be ignored by any industry. For instance, Okonkwo (2007, p. 89) says that some of the top-of-the-range cars such as Mercedes Benz and BMW are always advertised using models who are casually dressed. This has never affected their sales in Middle East where strict principles about dress code are always observed. However, the case of VictoriaÃ¢â¬â¢s Secret is completely different from this. In this project, the researcher will try to identify the truth as to whether some luxurious products are beyond cultural influence. It is from the first reading of these existing literatures that the researcher was able to define the research questions discussed above.Advertising Looking for dissertation on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How to Answer Research Questions In every research, there must be the logical methods that are used to collect and analyze data in response to the set research questions. The methodology chosen for a research must be sensitive of the resources available for the research, including time and finance. It must also take into consideration the nature of the research (Kapferer Bastien 2012, p. 53). In this project, the data in response to the research questions will be collected from the primary and secondary sources. The primary sources of data will be collected from a firm that offers luxurious products through e-mail and phone interviews. This process is considered appropriate because it eliminates the geographic barrier. The secondary data will be gathered from books, journals, and other reliable online sources of information. Analysis of the data will be conducted quantitatively to come up with the empirical facts about the issue under investigation. Data collected must respond dire ctly to the questions set in this proposal. The responses will be presented in graphs, tables and charts for clarity. Project Plan Project planning is an important stage because it describes specific activities that should be carried out, the time allocations, and how the financial resources will be spent. The Gantt chart below shows some of the important activities in this project, and their timeline. Timeline of the Activities in Project As shown in the above Gantt chart, this process is expected to take eight weeks to be completed. Each of the activities has a set timeline, but some of them can be completed within a shorter period. Collection of primary and secondary data and their analysis will be the main objectives in this project. The final document should be an informative report that incorporates the views of many scholars, and the sentiments of the individuals interviewed when collecting primary data. List of References Belk, R 2010, Research in consumer behavior, Emerald , Bingley. Kapferer, J Bastien, V 2012, The luxury strategy: Break the rules of marketing to build luxury brands, Kogan Page, London. Okonkwo, U 2007, Luxury fashion branding: Trends, tactics, techniques, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. Okonkwo, U 2010, Luxury online: Styles, strategies, systems, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. Ricca, M Robins, R 2012, Meta-luxury: Brands and the culture of excellence, Palgrave Macmillan, New York. Samli, A 2013, International consumer behavior in the 21st century: Impact on marketing strategy development, Springer, New York. Wiedmann, K 2013, Luxury marketing: A challenge for theory and practice, Gabler, Wiesbaden. This dissertation on Keys to Success in Cross-Border Marketing was written and submitted by user Lillie Quinn to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.